Communicator's Guide

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Wildland Fire Overview

Chapter 3: Fire Management

Chapter 4: Communication Planning and Strategy

Chapter 5: Communication Materials

Chapter 6: Cooperative Programs

Chapter 7: Fire Education

Chapter 8: Fire Prevention

Chapter 9: Fire Mitigation

Chapter 10: Resources

Chapter 11: Appendix

10. Resources

Webliography

General Interest
- National Interagency Fire Center
- National Wildfire Coordinating Group
- USFS North Central Research Station
- Federal Emergency Management Agency
- International Association of Fire Chiefs
- National Association of State Fire Marshals
- National Association of State Foresters
- National Emergency Management Association
- National Fire Protection Association
- USDA Forest Service
- U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Indian Affairs
National Park Service
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- U.S. Fire Administration

Wildland Fire Background
- Nearctica: The Natural History of North America
- Fire Regime Condition Class
- Community Wildfire Protection Plans

Communication Planning, Tactics, and Materials
- NWCG Publications Management System
- NWCG Public Information Officer Taskbook
- Symbols
- National Association of Interpretation
- Outdoor Advertising Association of America

Youth Programs
- 4-H
- Boy Scouts of America
- Boys and Girls Clubs of America
- Education World
- Future Farmers of America
- Girls Scouts of the USA
- National Science Teachers Foundation
- North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE)
- Wildland Fire Education Working Team
- Project Learning TreeĀ® (PLT)
- Project Wild
- Scholastic
- Student Conservation Association
- Virginia Department of Forestry
- USDA Forest Service Conservation Education (CE)
- Weekly Reader
- YMCA

Fire Prevention and Education
- Wildfire Prevention Education Teams
- Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention

Mitigation
- Firewise Communities
- Fire Safe Council
- Ecosystem Management Initiative
- Interface South
- Community Wildfire Protection Plans

Community Resources
- Communities Committee of the Seventh American Forest Congress
- National Association of Counties
- RC&D Councils
- National Volunteer Fire Council
- Society of American Foresters
- National Governors Association
- Western Governors Association
- Southern Governors Association
- Midwestern Governors Association
- The White House

Resources and Materials

General Interest
- Forest History Society
- Federal Agency Implementation Guidance for the Healthy Forest Initiative and the Healthy Forest Restoration Act
- Interagency Standards for Fire and Aviation Operations

Communication Planning, Tactics, and Materials
- Best Practices: Communication Planning, released July - August 2005
- Fire Wars Video
- Symbols
- NWCG Wildfire Prevention Sign and Poster Guide
- U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual
- Firewise Communities catalog
- Gebbie Press All-In-One Media Directory
- Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual

Fire Education and Fire Prevention
- Brochure "Wildland Fire in the United States"
- Electronic Bibliography of Fire Resources
- Fire Messaging Materials, released April 2005
- Links to Wildland Fire Education Products
- Public Service Announcements (English and Spanish versions)
- NWCG Training Classes
Field Manager's Course Guide
Incident Response Pocket Guide

Mitigation
- National Association of State Foresters CWPP Handbook
- Firewise Communities Workshops
- Firewise Communities Newsroom
- Firewise Communities Communications Guide
- Living on the Edge Workshops

Recommended Reading

- Archibold, O.W. 1995. Ecology of World Vegetation. London; New York: Chapman & Hall.
- Bazerman, C. 1988. Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and Activity of Experimental Article in Science. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
- Beck, Larry and Ted Cable. 1998. Interpretation for the 21st Century: Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing.
- Brown, G. and G. Yule. 1983. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
- Chase, R. 1993. "Protecting People and Resources from Wildfire: Conflict in the Interface." Culture, Conflict, and Communication in Wildland/Urban Interface. Ewert, A. et al. (eds.).
- Clute, K.P. 2000. A Study of Wildland Fire Communications. M.S. Thesis, School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University.
- De Golia, J. 1993. Fire: A Force of Nature. Las Vegas, NV: KC Publications.
- De Golia, J. 1993. Fire: A Force of Nature. Las Vegas, NV: KC Publications. Eisenhauer, B., R. Krannich, and D. Blahna. 2000. Attachments to special places on public lands: An analysis of
activities, reason for attachments, and community connections. Society and Natural Resources. 13:421-441.
- Ewert, A., D. Chavez, and A. Magill (eds.). 1993. Culture, Conflict, and Communication in the-Urban/Interface. Westview Press. pp.281-298.
- Ewert, A.W., J. Chavez, and A.W. Magill (eds.). 1993. Culture, Conflict and Communications in the Wildland/Urban Interface. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Fazio, J.R. and D.L Gilbert. 1982. Public Relations and Communications for Natural Resource Managers. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Fuller, M. 1991. Forest Fires. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Ginder, Alison L. and E. Sue McCoy. 1985. The Good Guide: A Sourcebook for Interpreters, Docents and Tour Guides. Ironwood Publishing, Box 8464, Scottsdale, AZ 87252.
- Gross, A.G. 1990. The Rhetoric of Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Ham, S.H. 1992. Environmental Interpretation: A Practical Guide for People with Big Ideas and Small Budgets. Golden, CO: North American Press.
- Ham, Sam H. 1992. Environmental Interpretation: A Practical Guide for People with Big Ideas and Small Budgets. Golden, CO: North American Press. (Also available in Spanish.)
- Knudson, Douglas M., Ted T. Cable, and Larry Beck. 1995. Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources. College Station, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.
- Lentz, S.C., J.K. Gaunt, and A.J. Willmer. 1996. Fire Effects on Archeological Resources Phase I, The Henry Fire, Holiday Mesa, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO.
- Machlis, Gary E. (ed.). 1986. Interpretive Views. National Park and Conservation Association, 1701 18th Street N.W., Washington, DC. 2009. (Out of print but found in most interpretation offices in federal resource management agencies.)
- Maclean, N. 1992. Young Men and Fire. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Michael Gross (ed.). Various Dates. Interpreter Handbook Series. College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI.
- Mullins, G.W. 1999. Wildfire: Feel the Heat. Bethesda, MD: Discovery Channel Pictures Inc. (IMAX Film).
- Mullins, G.W. 1999. Wildfire - Feel the Heat Study Guide. Bethesda, MD: Discovery Pictures, Inc.
- Myers, G. 1990. Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
- National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 1992. Strategic Communications for Wildland Fire Management: Discussion Guide.
- National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 1992. Strategic Communications for Wildland Fire Management: Facilitator Guide.
- National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 1994. "Introduction to Wildland Fire" Behavior S-190, Student Workbook NFES 1860. Boise, ID: National Interagency Fire Center.
- National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 1994. Fire Effects Guide.
- Pyne, S.J. 1995. World Fire: The Culture of Fire on Earth. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
- Pyne, S.J. 1997. America's Fires. A Forest Society Publication.
- Pyne, S.J. 1997. America's Fires: Management of Wildlands and Forests. Durham, NC: Forest History Society.
- Pyne, S.J. 1997-1998. Cycle of Fire. Weyerhaeuser Environmental Book Series, W. Cronon, (ed.). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
- Pyne, S.J. 1998. World Fire: The Culture of Fire on Earth. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
- Pyne, S.J., P.L. Andrews, and R.D. Laven. 1996. Introduction to Wildland Fire, 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pyne, S.J., P.L. Andrews, and R.D. Laven. 1996. Introduction to Wildland Fire. New York: Wiley.
- Sandman, P.M. 1993. Responding to Community Outrage: Strategies for Effective Risk Communication. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association.
- Tilden, F. 1957. Interpreting Our Heritage. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
- Trapp, S. et al. 1994. Designing Signs, Trails and Wayside Exhibits. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point Foundation Press Inc.
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Public Affairs. (no date). Public AffairsTips for More Effective Communication with the Public: Getting the Message Across with Radio. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Public Affairs. (no date). Public Affairs Tips for More Effective Communication with the Public: Getting the Message Across with Radio. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Public Affairs. (no date). Public Affairs Tips for More Effective Communication with the Public: How to Write a News Release. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
- USDA and National Association of State Foresters. "Mark Trail Tells How Prescribed Fire Can Be Helpful in Southern Ecosystem" (coloring book).
- West, B., P.M. Sandman, and M.R. Greenberg. 1995. The Reporter's Environmental Handbook. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
- Wuether, G. 1988. Yellowstone and the Fires of Change. Salt Lake City, UT: Haggis House Publications, Inc.
- Zehr, J., M. Gross and R. Zimmerman. 1990. Creating Environmental Publications. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Foundation Press, Inc.

Acronym Guide

- BGCA - Boys and Girls Clubs of America
- BIA - Bureau of Indian Affairs
- BLM - Bureau of Land Management
- CAA - Clean Air Act
- CE - Conservation Education
- CEUs - Continuing Education Units
- CFFP - Cooperative Forest Fire Program
- CWPP - Community Wildfire Protection Plan
- DEQ - Department of Environmental Quality
- DOE - Department of Energy
- DOF - Division of Forestry
- DOI - Department of the Interior
- EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
- FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency
- FFA - Future Farmers of America
- FIRE - Fire Interpretation Resource Education
- FSH - Fire Safety Health
- FUWT - Fire Use Working Team
- FWS - Fish and Wildlife Service
- GACC - Geographic Area Coordination Center
- GIS - Geographic Information Systems
- GPO - Government Printing Office
- HFRA - Healthy Forests Restoration Act
- HOA - Homeowner Association
- IACET - International Association for Continuing Education and Training
- IAFC - International Association of Fire Chiefs
- JCIFP - Josephine County Integrated Fire Plan
- MAC - Multi-Agency Coordination group
- NAAEE - North American Association for Environmental Education
- NASF - National Association of State Foresters
- NASFM - National Association of State Fire Marshals
- NCRS - North Central Research Station
- NEMA - National Emergency Management Association
- NFES - National Fire Equipment System
- NFPA - National Fire Protection Agency
- NICC - National Interagency Coordination Center
- NIFC - National Interagency Fire Center
- NPS - National Park Service
- NPS - National Park Service
- NSTA - National Science Teachers Association
- NWCG 0 National Wildfire Coordinating Group
- NWS - National Weather Service
- OAS - Office of Aircraft Services
- PLT - Project Learning Tree
- PSA - Public Service Announcement
- RC&D - Resource Conservation and Development
- TNC - The Nature Conservancy
- USDA - United States Department of Agriculture
- USFA - United Stated Fire Administration
- USFS - United States Forest Service
- WFEWT - Wildland Fire Education Working Team
- WUI - Wildland/Urban Interface
- WUIWT - Wildland/Urban Interface Working Team

Glossary

NWCG Glossary: http://www.nwcg.gov/pms/pubs/glossary/index.htm
This glossary provides the wildland fire and fire use communities a single source for wildland fire, prescribed fire, fire use and incident management terminology commonly used by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) and its Working Teams. The NWCG has directed that all NWCG document glossaries will be based upon the Glossary of Wildland Fire Terminology for the purpose of maintaining definition consistency and clarity among documents. A PDF of this Glossary is included in the Appendix.

Glossary of News Media Terms
- Appropriate Management Response - Specific actions taken in response to a wildland fire to implement protection and fire use objectives.
- Assignment Editor - in television news, the person who decides what stories will be covered and assigns stories to reporters.
- B-roll - video package made up of shots directly and/or indirectly relating to the subject at hand that can be used as supplemental cutaway material for an edited/live broadcast of that subject. Often provided to broadcast news organizations for use in news coverage. Examples may include footage of fires or prevention, education, and mitigation activities.
- Beat - a reporter's regular assignment, such as the police beat or fire beat.
- Breaking News - unplanned, spontaneous news events, such as wildfires, as opposed to scheduled events like City Council meetings.
- Deadline - the time at which a story must be ready or after which material will no longer be accepted for publication or broadcast.
- Editor - the person responsible for determining what stories will appear in a newspaper. A Managing Editor is responsible for overall operations while a City Editor determines local coverage and gives reporters assignments. Feature Editors, Photo Editors, and Sports Editors determine the stories that will appear in their sections.
- Feature - a story providing an in-depth look at news other than hard or breaking news, or a lighter look at the news.
- Five W's and H - who, what, where, when, why and how - the major questions answered in a news story.
- Follow-up - a story that adds information to a story previously broadcast or published.
- Hard News - the serious and immediate news of the day as opposed to feature stories and stories that can wait.
- Handout - a written statement, a set of statistics, or graphics prepared for distribution to the news media.
- News Director - the manager in charge of a radio or television news department.
- Off-The-Record - information provided to a reporter that is meant for background and not for publication. It is a good policy to never assume anything is off the record. If you say it, expect to hear it on the air or see it in print.
- Producer - in television news, the person who puts together the newscast and decides where a story will be placed.
- Sidebar - a story on the same topic that runs the same day and right next to the main story. The sidebar may have a narrower focus or more detail on a single aspect of the main story.
- Soundbite - the broadcast version of a quote. Usually consists of a very short statement or message.
- Standup - a reporter telling a small part of the story on camera in the field as a part of a package.
- Talking Head - a videotape recording of a close-up shot of someone talking.
- Voice-over - a television story where the news anchor in the studio reads a script over videotape.
- Wire Story - a news story that appears on a wire service.
- Wraparound - a radio story where the reporter's voice is recorded on audiotape around a soundbite. Similar to a television news "package."